ETESA - Empresa de Transmisión Eléctrica - Unimos Panamá con Energía
Hidrometeorología Home Etesa Español Sitemap Contacts
Mission - Vision
Contact Us
Daily Forecast
Extended Forecast
Precipitation Forecast
Synoptic Conditions
Current Conditions
Panama Weather
Daily Data
Historic Data
Climate Change
Thermal Sensation
El Nio Phenomenon
Climate Perspective
Extreme Temperatures
Solar Shine
Standardized Precipitation Index
Monthly Rainfall Forecast
Quarterly Rainfall Forecast
Hydrologic Regime
Hydrographic Basins
Hydroelectric Centrals
Current Dam Levels
Current River Levels
Historic Data
National Network
Meteorological Stations List
Hydrological Stations List
Satellite Meteorological Stations
What's a SAT?
Cabra SAT
Pacora SAT
Agricultural Services
: : Agricultural Services : :
Potential Evapotranspiration Hydric Balance Agro Hydric Balance Forecast Bulletins and Documents - Alanje Project


The Agrometeorology is the science that studies the meteorologic, climatic and hydrological conditions and their interrelations in the agricultural production processes. The Agrometeorology should work with the agriculture, helping the better use of the climate information, that helps counteract the weather adversities and to obtain better returns in the activity.

The main purpose is to characterize the earth's climates where it's possible to perform cultivation according to the previously researched needs and the corresponding regional disponibility. The near purpose is to signal to the Fitotechnia, the climate deficiencies that should be taken into consideration in the creation of new varieties that are adapted to these unfavorable environments.

Inside these concepts, it should be emphasized the existent diferences between bioclimate and agroclimate. You could say that bioclimate is the group of climate elements or the diversity of combinations that allow a specie to fulfill its life cycle. In this case its not important whether the plant produces little or much, if the perpetuation of the specie can be done by one or many seed, if, per example, a wheat plant if formed by 20 fertile tillers with big ears or with one tiller that supports one ear with only one fertile little ear. The geographical area covered by the bioclimate can be represented by a circle inside which are obeyed the characteristics to dispose favorable athmospheric combinations for its life cycle.

On the other hand, the agroweather is characterized differently and can be defined as the group of meteorological factors that, according to its occurrence period, its fequency, its duration and its intensity, make it possible the profitable cultivation of a specie.

Here takes part the economic aspect because not only the plant should complete its cycle, but also the final result of its cultuvation should be profitable for the farmer. The agroclimates can receive different denominations according to the activity they develop: cerealistic, stockbreeding, horticulturalistic. The geographic area covered by the agroclimate is smaller than the bioclimate corresponding to the same specie (Fig. 1). Sometimes, the area covered by the agroclimate can be bigger than its corresponding bioclimate. A typical case of a bigger geographical extension agroclimate than its corresponding bioclimate is in the sugar cane in Argentina, because its extension towars the south of the Provinde of Tucuman, produces the industrial exploitation of its canes, while the plants normally donesn't bloom. An extension of the cultivation area with frost protection enlarges the agroclimate exploitation surface.

Agroclima y Bioclima

Fig. 1: Agroclimate and bioclimate geographical areas.

The studies conducted by the Aglicultural Bioclimatology tending to better the necessary knowledge of meteorological and climatological elements for the cultivation growth and development, are the antecedents that provides the Agrometeorology trying to adequately distribute geographically the agricultural cultivations.

In the case of the vegetables, from their birth or since their inital growing, an biological activity is produces and its determined by its rythm (accelerating or delaying) according to the meteorological phenomena. The plant is a true meteorological device that records all variations in the components of the climate complex that influence over its biological cycle.

At the present, the Agricultural Hydric Balance is calculated daily, for the agricultural sector which is prepared from the stations: Antón, Bocas del Toro, David, Los Santos, Santiago y Tocumen, with a recomended field capacity of 150 milimeters for all stations. We are making the necessary coordinations to obtain the field capacity for each station.

The ETESA's Hydrometeorology Management is giving a first step for the Pilot Project running called Agrometeorology Information and Surveillance System for rice cultivation in the Alanje District, in the Province of Chiriqui, which counts with the colaboration of these institutions: Agricultural Development Departmen, Agricultural Assurance Institute, Agricultural Investigation Institute, Agricultural Development Bank, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences - Chiriqui Regional Office of the Panama National University, the Chiriqui Rice Producers Association and the Remigio Rosas Irrigation Users Association.

As the first accomplishment of the Pilot Project on the Alanje District, corregimiento of La Martina, in the “Piedra Hincada” Farm, propiety of Santiago Esquivel, was installed the the first Satellite Transmission Automatic Agrometeorology Station, which meassures the rain, the air temperature, the barometrical pressure, the 2m wind, the air relative humidity and the ground temperature at 20cm deep in real time. With the obtained data from that station, we will elaborate products to improve the agricultural activity.